Jonathan Swift (1667-1745) was an author, journalist and political activist. He is best known for his satirical novel Gulliver's Journey and his satirical essay on Irish famine, "A Modest Proposal." "Gulliver's Travels" is a book of fantasy, satire, and political allegory, and he is fond of all ages. He wrote Gulliver's Travels in 1725 and was published in 1726. The book was a great success throughout the British Empire and earned the titles of high-quality writer and commentator and author for the author. In this book, Gulliver, a surgeon on a merchant ship, travels to four imaginary countries. So the book is divided into four parts. Your first trip is to Lilliput, whose residents are about six inches tall. His second visit is to Brobdingnag, the land of giants. His third visit is to the Laputa and Legedo Islands, inhabited by philosophers and scientists, maintaining a love of music and mathematics. His last visit is to the land of the Honyhnhnms and Yahoos. They are rational and civilized horses, and the yahoos are reasonable, bestial, completely dirty human beings.
Before we talk about the symbols in his work, "The Gulliver's Journey," we should know something about the literary term "symbol." The word "Symbol" is derived from the late Latin "Symbolum" meaning token, sign, or emblem. It is, in effect, the ornament of literature. The author uses it to expose all things hidden or the philosophy of work honestly to the readers, as they may have no difficulty understanding it. If such a thing happened, the work would not be interesting and useful in representing the age. It is clear that Jonathan Swift has used symbols to convey his ideas to readers, making it easier with this help. With all things in mind, we can say that a symbol is something that means something else. In Gulliver's Travels, it all means something else because it is written in order to critique contemporary philosophies and customs. Almost every person in this book represents a historical figure or an idea.
Let's look at the symbols used in his work, The Gulliver & # 39; s Travel & # 39 ;.
In the first book, Swift chronicles Gulliver's visit to the six-inch Lilliputians. They represent the symbol of the extreme pride of humanity. The author ironically represents race. He discovers that they are small creatures with small minds, but they are the stocks of recoil and conspiracy; however, they are considered great. Gulliver is under the spell of his vanity glory and credulates at his threats of punishment, although the race has no real physical power over him. Gulliver learns more about the culture of Lipiputians and the great difference in size between him and race. It is explicit satire of the British government. Gulliver finds that Lilliputian government officials are chosen for their string dance skills, which is recognized as arbitrary and ridiculous. It symbolizes England's political appointment system that is arbitrary. The difference in their sizes symbolizes the importance of physical power. Gulliver can crush the Lilliputians by careless walking, but they don't realize their insignificance that symbolizes their small mindset. They keep Gulliver bound, believing they can control him. Swift symbolizes humanity's empty vindication of power and significance.
Swift is very careful in case of her satire and uses symbols. Gulliver's signed articles for freedom are in a formal, self-important language that symbolizes a meaningless, self-contradictory role, because Gulliver is the symbol of great strength and power. It can violate all links for your own safety. The story of the conflict between Lilliput and Blefuscu is ridiculous. High heels and low heels symbolize the "Whigs and Tories" of English politics. Lilliput and Blefuscu symbolize England and France. The violent conflict between the Big Endians and the Little Endians symbolizes the Protestant Reformation and the centuries-old war between Catholics and Protestants. So European history is like a series of brutal wars over meaningless and meaningless arbitrary disagreements. Conflict "as a person chooses to shell an egg" is a symbol of sensuality and banality. It is ridiculous and reasonable to conclude that there is no right or wrong way of worship. Swift suggests that the Christian Bible can be interpreted in more than one way. It is ridiculous for people to struggle with how to interpret it when it is not known that the interpretation is correct and that the others are wrong.
The Emperor of the Philippines is the symbol of tyranny, cruelty and corruption, and he is obsessed with the ceremony, which shows an immutable symbol of bad government. It's also a biting satire on George I, the king of England (1714 – 1727), for much of Swift's career. He has no admiration for the king. The Lilliputian Empress is Queen Anna, who blocked Swift's advance from the Church of England, committing offense in some of her past satire. Gulliver's urination on his neighborhood represents Swift's work "A Tale of a Tub." The Empress's repugnance to Gulliver's urination is similar to Queen Anna's critique of Swift's work and her efforts to limit her outlook on the Church of England. In fact, his urination symbolizes his ability to control Lilliputians. It illustrates the importance of physical power. Gulliver disobeys the Emperor's order to destroy Blefuscu's fleet, signing the feelings of his responsibility to all beings. Gulliver is in a position to change Lilliputian society forever. There is an army reference between Lilliput and Blefuscu symbolizing their patriotic glory with such a proud march of armies. The Lilliputian Emperor's request for Gulliver to serve as a kind of strong arch of triumph for troops to pass is a reminder that his grand parade is extremely silly. The war with Blefuscu is the symbol of the absurdity that comes out of the wounded vanity. Hence the Lilliputians symbolize lost human pride and indicate Gulliver's inability to properly diagnose it.
In Book II (Part II), Jonathan Swift chronicles Gulliver's visit to Giants Island. His walking here is not a symbol of danger to the Borbdingnagians as he did on his visit to Lilliput, because the situation is reverse. The Borbdingnags represent English forms. After a brief period of work, Gulliver was rescued by the king and queen, and he lives a life of considerable comfort in court. He spends much of his time learning the language and talking with the king about life in England. The king emerges as a just, merciful, very sympathetic and humane man. The Borbdingnagians symbolize the personal, personal and physical side of human beings when examined closely. In Lilliputians, Gulliver symbolized god-like power, but here's the slave and puppet symbol for performing various tricks to pay viewers. The Borbdingnagians do not symbolize negative human characteristics. The behavior of the Borbdingnagians is different and seems more civilized than Gulliver. One finds the Queen's goodwill towards Gulliver and common sense views. Their enslavement is virtual, symbolizing the fundamental humanity of the Borbdingnagians. So it is similar to Europeans who are happy to make a quick jump when the opportunity arises. It is a golden puppet in your hands and gives you a comfortable cradle with the protection of rats.
In this book we find a dwarf who is incapable of gaining power that generally accompanies a large physical body, but obtains a badge that symbolizes the politics of those seeking power not by physical force, but by their distinction. it is exactly immoral and ordinary. The ladies and their flaws symbolize imperfection as examined through sufficient examination. The microscopic view of Gulliver's flies and flesh symbolizes the discovery of the microscope. At the end of the 17th century, the first publication of books containing magnificent images was seen. These microscope views saw levels of intricacy and failure. In their eyes, the tiny size of Europeans is matched by their moral weakness. Gulliver's offer of gun powder represents the British 'imperfection. The refusal of the king symbolizes this race more human than the other races. It means that in this society, the vices are minimized to the maximum. Although this breed has enjoyed tremendous moral success, it is still not perfect.
Gulliver's third visit is to Lupta showing Swift's attack on science and abstract knowledge. The Laputans are the symbol of the stupidity of theoretical knowledge irrelevant to human life. During the voyage, the ship was attacked by pirates. He spoke to them in the Dutch language, but later, his exposure of more merciful pagans than Christians symbolized Swift's religious belief. In this visit, power is implemented not by physical size, but by technology. The floating island is both a formidable weapon and an allegorical image representing the symbol of government and people. This visit chronicles the Laputans' rigid devotion to abstract theory, language, architecture, and geography, which symbolizes non-humanity. Scientists are engaged in extracting the sun's rays from the cucumber and turning the feces into food and turning the ice into powder powder. The architect is dedicated to designing a rooftop home that symbolizes impossibility and non-existence, representing a scientific society founded in 1660. Robert Boyle, Robert Hooke, and Isaac Newton were all members of royal society. His main task was to use the new techniques of science to improve the craft, etc. The theorist ruined a country by forcing its people to follow its methods that were fresh and completely useless.
Gulliver's escape to Glubbdubdrib symbolizes Swift's attempt to defy the standards of abstract learning. In general, the ancient Greeks and the Romans were genuinely virtuous, whilst Europeans were a little degenerate. Apart from that, the Luggnagg Struldburgs symbolize human desires. They seek eternal life and the primary benefits of old age. In fact, the wisdom of old age can be used to help humanity, but the Struldburg immortals are merely hurt and selfish. The immense sadness of Stuldbrugs and the emptiness of Gulliver's desire for wealth symbolize Swift's condemnation of goals as self-absorbed as the state of small minds irrelevant to good society.
Jonathan Swift chronicles Gulliver's fourth trip to Honyhnhnms, representing an ideal of rational existence. Here, the man is supposed to be yahoo, and he is subject to the animals. It represents that animals are more civilized or a model citizen. Their society is safe from crime, poverty, disagreement and unhappiness. They do not know passion, joy and ecstatic love. The Honyhnhnms appeal to reason more than to any holy scripture as a criterion for proper action. They do not use force, but only strong exhortation. All of Gulliver's mourning suggests that they had a bigger impact than any other society he has ever visited.
In fact, it is a bitter criticism of human beings. Jonathan Swift chose humanity in all three visits, but here he chose the animals. Indeed, the Honyhnhnms represent man's mistaken and ostentatious arrogance in the power of reason. Gulliver's canoeing by kicking himself to pick up the yahoos' skins to escape the island represents his quick cynicism for the man. If we also discuss it, it is the chief weapon of the cynic or the satirist to improve humanity because every satirist is a reformer in any way.
In fact, it is the vision of his book in walnuts. His work needs more attention and more time. It hides a great treasure from the relevant time. His criticisms are recognized to be quick and harsh, but he was not used to exploiting human beings but to correct them by choosing his follies.